Commonwealth of Australia is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world’s sixth-largest country by total area occupying an entire continent of some 7.6 million square kilometres.. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Tim or to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. Australia’s capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney.
For about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century,Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians,who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups.After the European discovery of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, Australia’s eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states and several territories. The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.
Australia has the world’s 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capital income (IMF). With the second-highest human development index globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, and civil liberties and political rights. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G 20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the Pacific Islands Forum.
Since October 1945, more than 7.5 million people have migrated to Australia—over 800 000 of these people arrived under the Humanitarian Programme.
Australia’s population has increased from about seven million in October 1945 to 23.03 million as at March 2013. The highest number of settlers to arrive in any one year since World War II was 185 099 in 1969–70. The lowest number in any one year was 52 752 in 1975–76. Today, one in four of Australia’s 23 million people were born outside Australia.
About one million migrants arrived in each of the six decades following 1950:
|Year||Settler arrival numbers||Net permanent migration|
|1998–1999||84 100||49 000|
|1999–2000||92 300||51 200|
|2000–2001||107 400||60 800|
|2001–2002||88 900||40 700|
|2002–2003||93 900||43 500|
|2003–2004||111 600||52 500|
|2004–2005||123 400||60 800|
|2005–2006||131 600||63 700|
|2006–2007||140 100||68 000|
|2007–2008||149 400||72 400|
|2008–2009||158 021||77 000|
|2009–2010||140 610||54 300|
|2010–2011||127 460||39 000|
|2011-2012||158 943||71 500|
|2012–2013||152 414||60 653|
Source: overseas arrivals and departures (Website- www.border.gov.au)